Zeno Geradts was born on 26-09-1967 in Oosterhout (The Netherlands) started scientific background in Applied Physics and began his career as a research employee in the field of Colour Image Processing and Printing of Oce in the Netherlands in 1988, where he moved to patent examinations in 1990.


In 1991 he joined the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI) at the Toolmarks Section. There he started as toolmark examiner, and also worked on pattern recognition from image databases on toolmarks and shoeprints, and was a member of the ENFSI Shoeprint and Toolmark Working Group.  In this position he published several papers in journals on image retrieval in databases of shoeprints and toolmarks. He also examined several hundreds of cases in toolmarks and shoeprints.  In 1992 he started his own, famous website “Zeno’s Forensic Site”.


In 1995 he switched to the Firearms Department, where he was doing some casework. One of the important cases that he testified and published in, was the ballpoint case, where a woman was killed with a ballpoint pen, and one of the hypotheses that had to be examined if this was possible with a crossbow. He was a member of the ENFSI Expert Working Group of Firearms and GSR. He also worked on algorithms for pattern recognition in databases of bullets and cartridge cases, as wrote several publications in this field. In 1995 he also received the Young Investigator Award of the Prime Ministers Science and Technology Agency for Foreign Specialist in Japan, and worked for two months on a project at the National Research Institute of Police Science in Tokyo on super resolution and image analysis methods.

In 1997 he switched to the Digital Evidence and Biometrics Section, where he is working on digital image analysis and biometrics and is R&D-coordinator on Digital Evidence and Biometrics as well. He received his PhD on Content-Based Information Retrieval from Forensic Image Databases from the University Utrecht, Faculty Mathematics and Computer Science. Since 2005 he is chairman of the Forensic IT Working Group. In 2009 he organized for the ENFSI Digital Imaging Working Group a collaborative exercise on Camera Identification with PRNU. At different EAFS conferences he presented papers and workshops in the field.

From 2004 – 2010 he was the project leader of the network of excellence FIDIS funded by the European Commission and coordinator of the forensic implications package.  From 2000 -2005 he was the elected chairman of the Investigative Image Processing Technical Group of the SPIE.

As a Fellow of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS), he was elected as Chairman of the Engineering Section from 2004 – 2005. He is founding member of the Digital and Multimedia Section of the AAFS, and from 2008 – 2010 he is elected as Chairman of this section, from 2011 – 2013 he is elected as Director of this section as a member of the Board of Directors of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences. He also received the Engineering Section Founders Award from the Engineering Section of the AAFS in 2007. At the AAFS-meetings he organized a variety of workshops and presented many papers with a strong interdisciplinary character. He is also Trustee of the Forensic Science Foundation.

He is handling editor of the journal “Digital Investigation” of Elsevier, and in 2012 he is elected as member of the editorial board of the Journal of Forensic Sciences. For many conferences he has been asked as keynote speaker (e.g. ICIP, DFWRS, Colloquium on Cybercrime, IWCF) and he has been active in many program committees and as reviewer for a wide range of journals and project proposals. Zeno published many papers in forensic journals and contributions to books, is active on casework as expert witness, and projects in digital evidence.


Key publications in the field of forensic science

  • Camera Identification for collections of images and video with Photo Response Non Uniformity, Zeno Geradts, Wiger van Houten, PP-202, IALM 2012. International Journal of Legal Medicine, Vol. 126, Supplement 1, pp187-188
  • Facial Image Comparison combined with image comparison of hands and other body parts, Zeno Geradts, Arnout Ruifrok, Bernice Oud Grotebevelsborg,  OP/054,  IALM 2012. International Journal of Legal Medicine, Vol. 126, Supplement 1, pp.59
  • W. van Houten and Geradts, Z. (2012), Using Anisotropic Diffusion for Efficient Extraction of Sensor Noise in Camera Identification. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 57: 521–527. doi: 10.1111/j.1556-4029.2012.02057.x
  • Geradts, Zeno J. M. H.; Franke, Katrin; Veenman, Cor J. (Eds.) Computational Forensics Third International Workshop, IWCF 2009, The Hague, The Netherlands, August 13-14, 2009, Proceedings Series: Lecture Notes in Computer Science Subseries: Image Processing, Computer Vision, Pattern Recognition, and Graphics , Vol. 5718 2009, X, 181 p., Softcover ISBN: 978-3-642-03520-3 :
  • Chapter “Identity-Related Crime and Forensics”, Bert-Jaap Koops and Zeno Geradts in The Future of Identity in the Information Society Challenges and Opportunities Rannenberg, Kai; Royer, Denis; Deuker, André (Eds.) 2009, XVI, 508 p. 79 illus., 45 in color., Hardcover ISBN: 978-3-540-88480-4
  • Erwin J. Alles, 1,† M.Sc.; Zeno J. M. H. Geradts, 1 Ph.D.; and Cor J. Veenman, 1,2 Ph.D. Source Camera Identification for Heavily JPEG Compressed Low Resolution Still Images”, Journal of Forensic Science, Volume 54 Issue 3, Pages 628 – 638, May 2009. PMID: 19432739 [PubMed]
  • Geradts section editor Digital Evidence, Multimedia and Engineering of Wiley Encyclopedia of Forensic Science Allan Jamieson (Editor), Andre Moenssens (Co-Editor) ISBN: 978-0-470-01826-2 Hardcover 3104 pages May 2009. Written Chapter Image Processing and Analysis.
  • Z. Geradts. Chapter 24  Use of Computers in Forensic Science , in book James Stuart, Jon Nordby, Forensic Science : An introduction to scientific and investigative techniques”, CRC Press, Third Edition 2009, February 2009.
  • Forensic implications of identity systems Geradts, Zeno / In: DuD DuD : Datenschutz und Datensicherung, Informationsrecht, Kommunikationssysteme, ISSN 0724-4371; vol. 30 (2006), afl. 9, pag. 557-559 (3) / 2006
  • Geradts Z, Bijhold J . Content based information retrieval in forensic image database. Journal of Forensic Sciences,  2002;47(2): 285-292.
  • Geradts J, Bijhold J, Kieft M, Kurosawa K, Kuroki K, Saitoh N, Digital Camera Identification , Journal of Forensic Identification, 52(5), 2002, 621-632
  • Geradts, Z; Bijhold, J. Hermsen, R, Murtagh, F; Image matching algorithms for breech face marks and firing pins in a database of spent cartridge cases of firearms, Forensic Science International  2001, June 2001, Vol. 119, No. 1, pp. 97-106.
  • Geradts, Z; Bijhold, J; New developments in forensic image processing and pattern recognition , Science and Justice, 2001, Vol. 41, No. 3; pp.159-166.
  • Geradts, Z; Correlation techniques for cartridge cases”, AFTE-Journal May 1999, pp. 120-134.
  • Geradts, Zeno J.; Dofferhoff, Gerard; Visser, Rob; Using high-speed video in ballistic experiments with crossbows, Proc. SPIE Vol. 2942, p. 64-70, Investigative Image Processing, Leonid I. Rudin; Simon K. Bramble; Eds. Publication Date: 2/1997.
  • Geradts, Z; Keijzer, J ; The Image database REBEZO for Shoeprints  with developments on automatic classification of shoe outsole designs, Forensic Science International, (15 SEP 1996) Vol. 82, No. 1, pp. 21-31
  • Geradts Z, Keijer J, Keereweer I . A New Approach to Automatic Comparison of Striation Marks. 1994; 39(4): 974-980.